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Satiety: A mechanism to tell the body that it has had enough food. The
most important satiety compounds are the hormone leptin and the fatty acid
Saturated fat: A fat that is solid at room temperature. Fats that are in
foods are combinations of monounsaturated, polyunsaturated and saturated fatty
acids. Saturated fat is found in high-fat dairy products (like cheese,
whole milk, cream, butter, and regular ice cream), fatty fresh and processed
meats, the skin and fat of chicken and turkey, lard, palm oil, and coconut oil.
They have the same number of calories as other types of fat, and may
contribute to weight gain if eaten in excess. Eating a diet high in saturated
fat also raises blood cholesterol and the risk of heart disease.
Sciatic nerve: The nerve that serves the legs and originates from several
levels of the lower back. Formed by multiple nerve roots from the lumbar spine;
the sciatic nerve sends signals down the leg to control muscles and
up the leg to provide sensations.
Sciatica: An inflammation of the sciatic nerve usually marked by
tenderness along the course of the nerve through the buttocks, thigh, and leg.
Scoliosis: An abnormal curve of the spine.
Sedentary: A person who engages in little to no leisure-time physical activity.
Serotonin: A neurotransmitter in the brain that elevates mood and decreases
Set: A set is a group of repetitions that you perform without rest.
For example, if you do ten repetitions of a bench press and then place the bar
back on the rack and rest, you have just completed one set. For strength
training, most people do three sets of a particular exercise, 10 - 15
repetitions in each set, and a one minute rest between each set.
Slipped Disk: Herniated disk where material from the disk pushes through
the outer lining of the disk (see Disc Herniation).
Spina Bifida: A congenital defect of the spine in which the arches of the
lower lumbar spine fail to form over the spinal cord, leaving the cord
Spinal canal: The opening at the center of the spine through which
the spinal cord runs.
Spinal cord: The root section of the central nervous system going
down from the brain through the spinal column, where it divides into
Spinal column: The spine.
Spinal Fracture: Broken vertebrae in the spine.
Spinal cord: The column of nerve tissue that runs from the brain to the
Spinal fusion: A process in which the disc and cartilage is removed from
between the vertebrae, and bone grafts (often harvested from the pelvis) are
placed between or alongside the vertebrae to join the bones together.
Spinal stenosis: A narrowing of the spinal canal, that compresses
the spinal cord and/or the nerve roots, cutting off their impulses
to the muscles of the leg.
Spondyloarthopathy: A group of disorders that causes inflammatory
arthritis of the spine.
Spondylitis: Inflammation of the spine generally caused by an infection.
Spondylolisthesis: A spinal abnormality in which there is an anterior
displacement of a vertebra on the one below, often resuting in back pain.
Starvation metabolism: The slowing of the basal energy expenditure caused by
chronic underfeeding, leading to a reduction in the rate at which the body burns
calories and an increase in the rate at which the body attempts to store fat.
Stenosis: Narrowing of a portion of the spinal canal, usually because of
bony overgrowth (see Spinal Stenosis).
Strength training: This helps you tone muscles and lose fat. It also helps to
keep your bones keep your bones strong-which helps you avoid fractures as your
bones weaken with age.
Subluxation: A misalignment in the bony structures of the spine. Subluxations
can create pressure or irritation on the various nerves in your spine, and can
cause a wide variety of symptoms throughout your body, such as localized pain,
soreness, irregularity, and weakness. When pressure is applied on a nerve in
your spine, the nerve energy is interrupted, and sometimes this can profoundly
affect the function of other systems or organs in your body.
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